They are one of the most important part of culinary department.they are important for our health as well as they provide with essential nutrients aka vitamins and minerals.they are mostly composed of water 70-90 percent.

They are composed of

  • Carbohydrates
  • Vitamins and Minerals
  • Color Pigments
  • Tannins
  • Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, Lignin etc.
  • Flavor Substances

Vegetables are cooked to

  • Soften the Vegetables
  • Improve the flavor
  • Increase digestibility
  • Preserve vegetables


They are edible plants or parts of plants.

i.Classification Of Vegetables

Vegetables can be classified as

Type Definition Examples
Root   Radish,Carrot,Turnip,Beetroot,Colocassia
Tuber   Potatoes,Sweet Potatoes,Tapioca
Bulb   Garlic,Onion,shallots
Leaves   Fenugreek,Spinach,Lettuce,Cabbage
Flowers   Cauliflower,Plantain flower,Brocolli
Fruits   Tomatoes,Brinjals,Bottle Gourd,Pumpkin
Stem   Lotus Stem,Plantain stem,Celery Stem,Amarnth stem
Legumes   Green Peas,French Beans,Green Beans,Bengal gram tender
Fungi   Mushrooms
Algae   Spirulina

Other Classification

ii.Pigments and Colour Changes

Colour Pigment Colour Examples
Chlorophyll Green Coloured Vegetables Ladys Finger,French Bean,Green Peas etc.
Carotenoid Red,Orange,Yellow Colour Vegetables Pumpkin,Carrots,Bell Peppers etc.
Xanthocyanin Blue Purple And Deep Red Colour Beetroot,Chinnese Cabbage etc.
Flavons White Colour Vegetables Radish etc.

Table 1-Colour Pigments Present In Vegetables

Colour Pigment Colour   Effect of  
Heat Alkali Metals
Chlorophyll Green Colour Olive Green Bright Green Copper Bright and Iron Darkness
Carotenoid Red,Orange,Yellow Colour Brightness


Xanthocyanin Blue Purple And Deep Red Colour Red Blue & Green Iron-Blue-Tiin-Purple
Flavons White Colour Dark


Yellow Yellow-

Iron- brown

 Table 2-Colour Change of Colour Pigments Present In Vegetables due to heat,alkali and metals.

iii.Effects of Heat On Vegetables

Effects Of Heat On Vegetables

Cooking is the application of heat to make food safer to eat, digestible and more palatable. It also changes the appearance of the food. Heat breaks down the  starches present, changes and blend flavor within the food, and also destroy bacteria to make food digestible and diseases free.

With application of heat the following changes are associated with

1 CARBOHYDRATES  Sugar And Starch Caramelization and Gelatinization Caramelization is browning of sugars Vegetables get softened by the gelatinization of the starch.
2 VEGETABLE FIBERS Fibbers are a group of complex substances that give structure and firmness to plant, they cannot be digested. Heat breaks down the fibers Alkali makes fiber softer but make them mushy and lose essential vitamins.
3 MINERALS  Trace elements Minerals dissolve in water during cooking
4 VITAMINS Vital nutrients required in small amounts. Vitamins may be destroyed by prolonged cooking.
5 PIGMENTS  Substances which determine the colour of the vegetables o   Pigments may also be destroyed by prolonged cooking.

o   Pigment determine whether the food is appetizing enough to eat or not.

 6 FLAVOUR  Flavour components of vegetables Flavor may also determine whether the food is appetizing enough to eat or not.
7 PROTEIN Proteins are peptide bonds of amino acids/long chain of amino acids. Coagulate:

o   When heat is applied to the protein they become firm or they start to coagulate.

o   Proteins become tough and dry when exposed to high heat.