Yield is the amount of food material that is available for consumption after the food is prepared and processed and turned into the final product.Yield test is a testing process to determine accurately the amount of raw materials needed to produce a certain amount of final processed product.

For example, to make pomegranate juice, yield testing helps provide an estimate of how much juice can be produced from 10 pomegranates after the outer shell

and seeds are removed

Standard Yield

The yield of a recipe is the number of portions it will produce.

Yields can also be expressed as a total volume or total weight the recipe produces. Standard yields for the main, often higher cost, ingredients such as meat, may also take into consideration portion cost and be determined in part by

calculating the cost per cooked portion.

Standard Yield Test

Trim Test: The trim test determines the excess fat that has been left over by the butcher.

Trimming Yield Percentage =Fully trimmed meat/ Meat before trimming

Ageing Yield:

Certain cuts of meat are required to be aged for meat are required to be aged for varying length of time. Ageing causes to lose weight due to loss of moisture in the meat. Normally 5% to 10% shrinkage occurs in the first two weeks of age with lesser shrinkage upon further ageing. There is no convenient method to determine the ageing yield percentage.

Bonning Yield:

This yield gives you the amount of edible meat without bones.

Cooking Test:

All meat product will shrink during the cooking process due to loss of moisture.The amount of shrinkage depends upon the degree of temperature.

Butchers Test/Yield:


Suresh is a butcher at the local grocery store. He periodically performs a butchers yield test, which involves meat, poultry, or fish, to determine the amount of chicken that needs to be processed for 20 gallons of chicken soup he makes every Wednesday.

The process involves:

1. Taking the weight of the whole chicken and any with skins and bones before any processing is done.

2. Cutting the chicken, and separating the skin, bones, and gizzards

3. Determining the weight of the cooked chicken pieces in the final, ready-to-eat product, which is the soup.

The butchers test helps planning in advance to have a more accurate estimate of how much chicken has to be processed for the 20 gallons of chicken soup. It also helps the him determine the cost of the soup per 8- ounce cup as the he includes in its calculations the total cost of the chicken it takes to make the soup, including the cost of the parts that were not added to the soup.

Cooking Loss Test:


Sunita makes homemade jams and jellies that she distributes to local farm stores. She uses the cooking loss test to determine how much fruit to purchase to get the number of jars.


The following terms are commonly used in the process of yield testing.

As Purchased, or AP weight

This is the initial weight of the food materials weighed as is, after they are purchased.

Edible Product, or EP weight

This is the weight of only the usable parts of the food materials after all the unusable portions are removed. For cooked items, this is the weight of the final processed food product after the cooking processes are completed on the usable parts of the food. For sellable items, this is the unit weight per quantity of the food as it is finally served.

Yield Percentage, or YP

This is the percentage of final yield or usable portions of the food.

This will be different for different food items, and it can change depending on the nature of the processing.

The yield percentage can be calculated using the formula: (EP/AP)*100.

Portion size and portion cost:

Portion size is determined by management; in this example,

individual portions of the pork loin weigh 250 g (or 0.250 kg).

The portion cost is determined by multiplying the cost of a usable kg by the

portion size.

That is, portion cost = portion size x cost of usable kg

Using the correct units is very important. The portion size should be converted into kilograms as the cost per usable kg has been found.

Portion size equation

portion cost = portion size x cost of usable kg

0.250 kg x Rs,200/kg = Rs 50

Cost factor:

If the price of pork loin changes, the monetary values entered on the meat cutting yield sheet become invalid.

An appropriate selling price should be.

The cost factor per kilogram is determined by

dividing the cost per usable kg by the original cost per kilogram (see below)

Cost factor equation

Cost factor per kg =cost per usable kg+ original cost per kg

The cost of a usable kg if the wholesale cost changes with the following formula.

Finding the cost of usable kg if wholesale cost changes

new cost of usable kg = cost factor per kg * new wholesale cos

Yield Testing

Yield in culinary terms refers to how much you will have of a finished or processed product.

Professional recipes should always state a yield;

for example, a tomato soup recipe may yield 15 L, and a muffin recipe may yield 24 muffins.

Yield can also refer to the amount of usable product after it has been processed (peeled, cooked, butchered, etc.)

For example,

you may be preparing a recipe for carrot soup.

The recipe requires 1 kg of carrots, which you purchase.However,In order to do accurate costing, yield testing must be carried out on all ingredients and recipes.

When looking at yields, you must always consider the losses and waste involved in preparation and cooking.

There is always a money value that is attached to vegetable peel, meat and fish trim, and packaging like brines and syrups. Any waste or loss has been paid for and is still money that has been spent. This cost must always be included in the menu price.

Sometimes, this “waste” can be used as a by-product. Bones from meat and fish can be turned into stocks. Trimmings from vegetables can be added to those stocks or, if there is enough.