UNIT-3 MACRONUTRIENTS

MACRONUTRIENTS

CARBOHYDRATES

FUNCTIONS OF CARBOHYDRATES IN OUR BODY

  • Carbohydrates yield 4.5 Kcal of energy per 1oo gms.
  • Main function is to supply energy.
  • Protein sparing: It spares the burning of protein for energy
  • Prevents ketosis
  • It aids in the more efficient and complete oxidation (burning) of fats for energy
  • The primary function of dietary carbohydrate is to supply energy to body cells. They constitute the major source of energy in the synthesis of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), the fuel of a cell.Some cells, such as those in the brain, nervous system, and blood, use only carbohydrates for fuel.During high-intensity exercise, muscles get most of their energy from carbohydrates.
  • Carbohydrate contribute to cellular structure and the synthesis of cellular products.
  • They form the structure of DNA and RNA molecules.
  • They may be converted to non-carbohydrate fractions, such as glycoproteins, to form structural components of the cell.
  • They may be converted into a storage form, such as glycogen, that is readily available for conversion to glucose.

SOURCES

Grains,Sugar,Jaggery,Palm Sugar,Malt,Fruits,Vegetables,Milk etc.

RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA)

225 to 325 gms of carbohydrates per day

EFFECTS OF DEFICIENCY AND EXCESS INTAKE OF CARBOHYDRATES

1.EFFECTS OF CARBOHYDRATE DEFICIENCY

A deficiency of glucose, or low blood sugar, is called hypoglycemia. If the body has insufficient carbohydrate intake or stores, it will consume protein for fuel. This is problematic because the body needs protein to make muscles.

2.EXCESS INTAKE OF CARBOHYDRATES CAUSES

• Obesity is the primary concern whenever one consume an excess of kilocalories for his need .Generally carbohydrates and fats are the chief kilocalorie leading to obesity .

• Persons who “graze” on carbohydrate foods throughout the day are more prone to dental caries .Good oral hygiene can help compensate for a person chooses to eat in this manner .Both sugars and starches are cariogenic (promoting dental cavities).

FATS

FUNCTIONS OF FATS

  • Fats provides energy.
  • It is structural component of cell membranes
  • They are carriers of vitamins.
  • Required to produce essential fatty acids(EFAs).
  • Cholestrol an essential requirement of our body is fat.

SOURCES

Nuts,Ghee,Butter,Oil,

RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES(RDA)

44 To 78 Gms Per Day Of Which Only 22 Gms Saturated Fats

EFFECTS OF DEFICIENCY AND

EXCESS INTAKE OF FATS

1.EFFECTS OF DEFECIENCY OF FAT IN OUR BODY

  • Dry and scaly skin.
  • Dry eyes.
  • Feeling constantly cold.
  • Dry hair and/or hair loss.
  • Hormonal problems, including loss of menstrual cycle.
  • Inability to feel full/always feeling hungry.
  • Issues concentrating and/or mental fatigue.
  • Deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins.
  • Constant fatigue.

2.EXCESS INTAKE OF FAT IN OUR BODY CAUSES

  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cerebral Vascular Disease,
  • Certain Cancers,
  • Diabetes,
  • Obesity And
  • Metabolic Syndrome.

PROTEINS

FUNCTIONS OF PROTEINS

  • Growth and Maintenance
  • Causes Biochemical Reactions
  • Acts as a Messenger
  • Provides Structure
  • Maintains Proper pH
  • Balances Fluids In Body
  • Bolsters Immune Health
  • Transports and Stores Nutrients

SOURCES

Egg,Milk,Poultry,Mutton,Pulses

RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES(RDA)

0.8 Gm Per Kilogram Of Body Weight

EFFECTS OF DEFICIENCY AND

EXCESS INTAKE OF PROTEINS

1.EFFECTS OF DEFICIENCY OF PROTEIN IN OUR BODY

  • Skin, hair and nail problems.
  • Loss of muscle mass.
  • Increased risk of bone fractures.
  • Bigger appetite and increased calorie intake.
  • Risk of infections.
  • Fatty liver.
  • May inhibit proper body growth in children.

2.EFFECT OF EXCESS INTAKE OF PROTEINS ON OUR BODY

  • Bad Breath
  • Weight Gain
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Calcium Loss
  • Kidney Damage
  • Heart Disease

WATER

FUNCTIONS OF WATER IN OUR BODY

  • Regulates body temperature.
  • Moistens tissues in the eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Protects body organs and tissues.
  • Carries nutrients and oxygen to cells.
  • Lubricates joints.
  • Lessens burden the on kidneys and liver by flushing out waste products.
  • Helps dissolve minerals and nutrients to make them accessible to your body.

SOURCE

Drinking water,Fruits,Vegetables,coconut water etc.

RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA)

8 glasses daily