UNIT-2 CLASSIFICATION OF NUTRIENTS

NUTRIENTS

DEFINITION

NUTRIENTS can be defined as the chemical components of a natural food which provides nourishment to our body.

TYPES OF NUTRIENTS

There are basically 7(Seven ) types of nutrients.

1.Carbohydrates

2.Protiens

3.Fats

4.Vitamins

5.Minerals

6.Dietary Fiber/Roughage

7.Water

CLASSIFICATION OF NUTRIENTS

1.) Macro-Nutrients                       2.Micro-Nutrients

I) Carbohydrates                             I)Vitamins

II)Protiens                                           II)Minerals

III)Fats

DEFINITION

  • MICRONUTRIENTS can be defined as those nutrients which our body require in small amounts.
  • MACRONUTRIENTS are those nutrients which are required in large amount by our body.

MACRONUTRIENTS

CARBOHYDRATES

DEFINITION

CARBOHYDRATES can be defined as bio-molecule made up of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen with a general formula Cn(H2 O)n.It is also called hydrate of carbon.It is a product of photosynthesis.

CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES

1.Simple

2.Complex

SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATE COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE
Monosaccharide

Disaccharide

Polysaccharide

Carbohydrates are made up of sugars or saccharides.

  • Simple carbohydrates are those carbohydrates which are made up of one or two sugar molecules like monosaccharide and polysaccharides.
  • Complex carbohydrates are those carbohydrates which are made up of many sugar molecules.
  • Monosaccharides are those carbohydrates which are made up of single sugar molecule. For example Glucose, Fructose and Galactose.
  • Disaccharides are those carbohydrates which are made up of two sugar molecules.For example Sucrose(Cheeni),Lactose(Milk Sugar) and Maltose(Malt Sugar).
  • Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates which are made up of large numbers of monosaccharides linked with glycosidic bond.in other words it can be defined as long chains of monosaccharide linked with glycosidic bonds.

Examples Starch-potatoes,rice,wheat

Glycogen-Carbohydrates present in muscles of animal

Cellulose-Carbohydrates present in skin of fruits or vegetables

FATS

Introduction

Fats and oils belong to the class of organic compounds called “lipids” that are fatty acids or their derivatives. Aside from fats and oils, lipids also include phospholipids, such as lecithin that is found in egg yolk, cholesterol and other sterols. There are many types of lipids, including HDL and LDL cholesterol, essential fatty acids, lecithin, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, saturated fatty acids, sterols, trans fats, triglycerides and more.

Lipids have been both implicated in disease and praised for their roles in disease protection and management. In excess, lipids contribute to obesity, but some lipids are essential to the diet and defend the human body against disease.

Definition

Fats or oils can be defined as triglycerides made up of three parts of fatty acids and one part of glycerol.

Lipids can be defined as an organic compound which are soluble in organic compound and insoluble in water.Example Cholestrol,Refined Oil,Ghee,Egg yolk,Sterols.

CLASSIFICATION OF FATS

According to Degree Of Saturation

  • Saturated
  • Unsaturated
  • Monounsaturated
  • Polyunsaturated
  • Saturated fats are those fats or oils which are made up of fatty acids having single bonds.They are solid at room temperature.Example-ghee,butter.
  • Unsaturated fats are those fats or oils which are made up of fatty acids having double or triple bonds.They are liquid at room temperature.Example-Mustard oil,refined oil.Unsaturated fats are of two types
        • Monounsaturated Fat-Those fats or oils which are made of fatty acid having one double or triple bond.Example-Olive oil,Canola oil,Seasame oil(Til Ka Tel)
        • Polyunsaturated Fats-Those fats or oils which are made up of those fatty acids having more than one single or triple bond.They are having two healthy fats omega-3-fatty acid (Linolenic Acid) and omega-6-fatty acid(Linoleic acid).Examples-Walnuts,Flax seeds etc.

PROTEINS

INTRODUCTION

Protein is more than meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy milk and dairy products, or vegetables. Protein is the building blocks inside these foods that are indispensable to life. It is not surprising that the Greek root for protein is prota, which means “of primary importance.”

Protein was first discovered and named by chemists in the 1800 s. Protein was noted for its central role in living organisms in the early 1900 s and identified by its structure in the 1950 s. The first proteins that were studied were urease, an enzyme; insulin, a hormone; and hemoglobin and myoglobin, blood and muscle proteins that help to identify the many functions that protein has in the human body .

Amino acids, the structural building blocks that exist in these and other proteins, are responsible for bodily functions and ultimately for life. These microscopic amino acids are the fundamental units of the protein foods that you consume: beef, dairy products, fish, lamb, legumes, nuts and seeds, pork, poultry, seafood, vegetables and even some fruits.

DEFINITION

Proteins are those biomolecules which are made up of large chains of amino acids linked together with peptide bonds essential for the growth and development, as building blocks of our body.

CLASSIFICATION OF PROTEINS

      • Based On Structure –
        • Fibrous,
        • Globular,
        • Intermediate
      • Based On Composition –
        • Simple
        • Conjugated,
  • Fibrous proteins or Scleroproteins are those proteins which are made up of elongated or fibrous polypeptide chains of amino acids.It is structural protein.It is not soluble in water. Example-Keratin(Protein in Hairs),Collagen & elastin in meat etc.
  • Globular proteins are those proteins which have compact and spherical shape.Example- Haemoglobin,Myoglobin,Insulin
  • Intermediate proteins are filamentous proteins.
  • Simple Protein are those proteins which on hydrolysis yield only amino acids.Example-Albumins,Globulins.
  • Conjugated Proteins are those proteins which on hydrolysis yield amino acid and a non-protein.Example-Heamoglobin(Haeme—Iron),Lipoprotein(Lipid+Protein).

WATER

Water can be defined as colourless, odourless and transparent liquid which is required by our body for various voluntary and involuntary actions for surviving besides oxygen and food.

MICRO NUTRIENTS

VITAMINS

DEFINITION

Vitamins can be defined as a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients required for metabolism of our body which may cause diseases if not consumed in proper amount.

Classification of Vitamins

  • Water Soluble
  • Fat Soluble
  • Water Soluble Vitamins are those vitamins which are soluble in water.Vitamin-B complex and Vitamin-C
  • Fat Soluble Vitamins whic are soluble in fat.Vitamins A,D,E,K.

MINERALS

DEFINITIONS

Minerals are those elements found in our food that are the needed by our body to develop and function normally failing which it may lead to diseases and deterioration in health.

Classification of Minerals

  • Macro Elements
  • Trace Or Micro Elements
  • Macro Elements are natural elements which are required by our body in more amount.These are Sodium(Na),Potassium(K),Calcium(Ca) and Magnesium(Mg), Chlorine(Cl) and Phosphorous(P).
  • Trace Or Micro Elements are minerals which are required by our body in very small amounts.These are iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), vanadium (V), and cadmium (Cd),