STOCKS

    A. Definition of stock

    INTRODUCTION

    Stock is the base liquid used for preparing many simple and complicated dishes in western cuisine.It is called as” Fonds de cuisine ”  in French,which means “the foundation of cooking”.Thus the stock is the base of any food or it is the foundation for food preparations in a cuisine. This liquid is used for preparing other soups,broths,gravies,sauces etc.

    DEFINITION OF STOCK

    Stock can be defined as a flavorful liquid used in the preparation of soups, sauces, and stews, derived by gently simmering various ingredients in water.

     They are based on meat, poultry, fish, game, or seafood, and flavored with mirepoix, herbs, and spices. Vegetable stocks are prepared with a combination of vegetables or intensely flavored with a single ingredient, such as mushrooms, tomatoes, or leeks.

    The terms stock, broth, and bouillon can be confusing but they are essentially quite similar.There are different French terms used for stocks-

    • Fond The term fond as stated above ,meaning base, is a fitting definition for the liquids mentioned because they are the foundation of many different food preparations.
    • Broth A broth is usually made from simmered meats, while a stock is made from the Bones.
    • Bouillon A bouillon, from the French term bouillir, meaning to boil, can be any liquid produced by simmering ingredients in water.
    • Fumet Fumet is a concentrated liquid that often contains wine
    • Nage Nage, meaning to swim, refers to cooking ingredients in a court bouillon,it is often associated with shellfish.

    CATEGORIES OF STOCK

    There are basic two types of stocks.

    1.White Stock/Fond Blanc

    2.Brown Stock/Fond Brun

    Depending on the desired outcome, any stock can be white or brown. A stock can also be as simple as the Japanese preparation of Dashi, a light stock made with dried seaweed (Kombu), dried bonito fish flakes (Katsuobushi), and mushrooms (shiitakes).

    B. Types of stock

    There are 4 basic types of stocks

    i.WHITE STOCK/FOND BLANC

    ii.BROWN STOCK/FOND BRUN

    III.FISH STOCK & FISH FUMET/FOND DE POISSON & FUMET DE POISSON

    iv.VEGETABLE STOCK

     

    DEFINITION WHITE STOCK

    White stock is a stock which is uncolored having light flavor,prepared by simmering bones in water with vegetables and herbs.

    DEFINITION BROWN STOCK

    A brown stock is a stock that uses roasted components to create a rich color and robust flavor,prepared by roasting bones,vegetables and herbs followed by simmering in water.

    DEFINITION FISH STOCK

    A fish stock is a stock prepared from bones of white fleshed fish,having mild flavor.

    DEFINITION FISH FUMET

    A fish fumet is the variation of fish stock prepared by simmering  the fish and its bones in fat and the cooking liquid contains wine.

    DEFINITION VEGETABLE STOCK

    A vegetarian stock prepared out of seasonal vegetables & aromatics.It can be white or brown.

    C. Preparation of stock

    BASIC INGREDIENTS USED IN MAKING A STOCK

     

    • BONES                                                                                
      • Bones of veal meat,poultry or poultry of ther animals,knuckles,shanks etc.
      • Start with high quality ingredients.
      • Bones from younger animals should be used, since they are having more cartilage that is rendered into gelatin,that gives the the stock better viscosity.
      • For shortest cooking time cut the bones small about 3 inches,to extract flavors in shortest possible time.
      • A combination of meaty and marrow bones gives the stock a rich flavor and body.
      • If fresh and trimmed of excess fat meat trimmings can be used.
      • For fish stock/Fish
        • Fumet-Use lean fish bones with a neutral flavor.
        • Remove the gills, otherwise it will give an off-flavor.
        • VEGETABLES                  Aromatics/Mirepoix

    MIREPOIX

    Mirepoix is a mix of aromatics, made from finely diced vegetables,traditionally celery,carrots & onions.

    • HERBS &SPICES

    Parsley,Thyme ,Bay leaf,zinger,garlic,peppercorn etc. /Sachet d Epice/Bouquet Garni

    SACHET d EPICES

                  A sachet d’épices (pronounced “sa-SHAY DAY-pees”),is a small sack of muslin cloth containing

                  herbs and spices that is used to add flavor to the stock.

     BOUQUET GARNI

    When the herbs & spices used to flavor a stock is tied together as a bouquet it is called bouquet garni.

    • LIQUID

    Always use cold water/Remouillage.

    REMOUILLAGE

    When a stock is strained the pot is added with water and simmered for a while,this liquid is called remouillage.To get strong flavor reduce it on flame.

    • WINE

    For preparing a fumet, nage, or court bouillon, white wine is added for flavor and acidity.

    • TOMATOES

    For preparing brown stock Tomato puree, paste can also be used.

    D. Recipes

    Recipe WHITE STOCK

     

    YIELD-4 Litres/1 Gallon

    INGREDIENTS QUANTITY For 1 litre Stock SPECIFICATIONS
    BONES                  2.7 to 3-6 Kg 900 to 1-2 Kg Bones of veal,meat poultry or other poultry as desired
    WATER 5-6 Litres 1.25 to 1.50 litres Prepared remouillage
    MIREPOIX 450 gm  112.5 gm Onion,Carrots &Celery
    SACHET d EPICE 1 No.  1 No.

    2-3 Bay Leaves,10 Parsley stem,1 sprig of fresh Thyme

    10 Peppercorns

     

    METHOD

    1.Rinse bones in cold water.

    2.Take a stockpot and add rinsed bones with cold water,bring on fire.

    3.Simmer and remove scum as it comes to the surface.

    4.Do not boil as it will make the stock cloudy.

    5.Simmer for three hours.

    6.Add mirepoix and sachet d’epice and simmer for another 1 hour

    7.Strain stock through chinoise

    8.Use immediately or cool and store.

    RECIPE BROWN STOCK

    YIELD-4 Litres/1 Gallon

    INGREDIENTS QUANTITY For 1 litre Stock REMARKS
    BONES                  2.7 to 3-6 Kg 900 to 1-2 Kg Bones of veal,meat poultry or other poultry as desired
    WATER 5-6 Litres 1.25 to 1.50 litres Prepared remouillage
    MIREPOIX 450 gm 112.5 gm Onion,Carrots &Celery
    TOMATOES 450gms 112.5 gm Substitute 120gm tomato paste diluted with 160gm water
    SACHET d EPICE 1 No. 1 No.

    2-3 Bay Leaves,10 Parsley stem,1 sprig of fresh Thyme

    10 Peppercorns

     

    METHOD

    1. Place bones in a roasting pan.
    2. Roast at 220 C until caramelized to deep brown colour.
    3. Reduce oven temperature to 180 C
    4. Add mirepoix and tomatoes .Caramelize the vegetables.
    5. Place the above caramelized bones and vegetables in stockpot and add cold water or prepared remouillage.
    6. Deglaze the roasting pan and add the liquid into the stockpot.
    7. Bring on fire.
    8. Simmer for 6-8 hrs or overnite.
    9. Remove the scum regularily.
    10. Strain stock through a chinoise Use immediately or cool and store.

    FISH STOCK & FUMET

    YIELD-4 Litres/1 Gallon

    INGREDIENTS QUANTITY For 1 litre Stock REMARKS
    BONES                     2.7 to 3-6 Kg 900 to 1-2 Kg Fish bones cleaned and rinsed
    WATER 5 litre 1.25 litre  
    MIREPOIX 450 gm 112.5 gm White Mirepoix of Onion &Celery
    WHITE WINE* 1 Litre 250 ml If making fish fumet
    SACHET d EPICE 1 No. 1 No.

    2-3 Bay Leaves,10 Parsley stem,1 sprig of fresh Thyme

    10 Peppercorns

    Oil 25 ml 6 ml For sauteing

     

    1. Rinse bones in cold water.
    2. If using large fish remove gills.
    3. Bring a stockpot on fire and add oil
    4. Add fish bones and sweat without browning.
    5. Add mireppoix continue sweating.
    6. Continue sweating till biones and mirepoix are soft.
    7. De-glaze the bones with white wine.
    8. Add water
    9. Bring to simmer and remove scum regularily.
    10. Add sachet d epice.
    11. Simmer for 45-60 mins.
    12. Strain and use as required.

     

    RECIPE VEGETABLE STOCK

    YIELD-4 Litres/1 Gallon

    INGREDIENTS QUANTITY For 1 litre Stock REMARKS
    BONES                  2.7 to 3-6 Kg 900 to 1-2 Kg Fish bones cleaned and rinsed
    WATER 1 litre 250 ml  
    MIREPOIX 1 Kg 250 gm  Mirepoix of Onion, Carrots &Celery
    ADDITIONAL VEGETABLES 1 Kg 250gm

    Vegetable trimmings from other vegetables like leek or fennel tops.

    Onions can vary with leek,scallion and shallots.

    Avoid starch vegetables like potatoes,can use root vegetabkles likenparsnip,turnip.

    For spicy notes use zinger,lemongrass and horseradish.

    Tomatoes,mushrooms and onion skins should only be used in brown vegetable stock.

    SACHET d EPICE 1 No. 1 No.

    2-3 Bay Leaves,10 Parsley stem,1 sprig of fresh Thyme

    10 Peppercorns

    Oil 25 ml 6 ml For sauteing

     

    METHOD

    1. Heat oil in a pot.
    2. Add mirepoix and other vegetables.
    3. Saute vegetables without browning to develop flavor.
    4. Add water and sachet d epice.
    5. Simmer for 45 mins.to 1 hr.
    6. Strain through chinois.

     

    E. Storage of stocks

     

    • Cool down the stock rapidly using ice filled sinks and stir it in between for faster cooling.
    • Store in heavy duty plastic container, leave about an inch of space as the liquid will expand during storage at cold temperatures.
    • Containers should be sealed before refrigerating or freezing.
    • Stock will keep for about a week in the refrigerator, or 6-8 months in the freezer
    • Clever measuring-When storing the stock if possible store in pre-measured quantities as required in the kitchen preparations, that will help in organizing the operations better. Do write the quantity on the container for better management of the work in kitchen.

    F. Uses of stocks

     

    • Stocks are the base for any Western cooking.
    • It is used to make soups and sauces,as its most common use.
    • White stocks are used in preparations of white sauces and clear soups,
    • Brown stocks are used in brown sauces, red meat stews, and braised dishes.
    • Fish stock and fish fumet is used to prepare fish based preparations.
    • Stocks can also be used to prepare certain rice dishes such as paella and biryani.

    G. Care and precautions

    POINTS TO REMEMEBER WHILE PREPARING A STOCK/

    PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN PREPARING A STOCK

     

    1. Never Salt a Stock.
    2. Use slow flame
    3. Boil stock ingredients starting with cold water to extract proteins otherwise the proteins will be sealed  by hot water.
    4. Remove the scum often in the beginning and then frequently after that without breaking the scum making the stock.
    5. Do not boil a stock or else it will be cloudy.
    6. Choose best quality ingredients to yield best quality stock.
    7. Strain the stock through finest strainer.
    8. Cool your stock as fast as possible before keeping it in refrigerator to prevent staling.