Unit 3.CONFECTIONERY

 

1.FLOUR BASED CONFECTIONERY

Flour-based confectionery includes a wide variety of delicious treats that are made primarily with flour as a key ingredient. Here are some popular flour-based confections:

  1. COOKIES

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, butter, eggs, baking soda/powder, vanilla extract, chocolate chips, nuts, etc.

Process: Cream butter and sugar, add eggs, mix in dry ingredients, fold in additional ingredients, shape into cookies, and bake.

  1. CAKES

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, butter or oil, eggs, baking powder/soda, flavorings (vanilla, chocolate, etc.).

Process: Cream butter and sugar, add eggs, alternate with dry ingredients, mix in flavorings, pour into pans, and bake.

  1. BROWNIES

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, cocoa powder, butter, eggs, baking powder/soda, vanilla extract, nuts (optional).

Process: Melt butter, mix in sugar and cocoa, add eggs, fold in dry ingredients, add nuts if desired, and bake.

  1. MUFFINS

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, baking powder/soda, eggs, milk, oil or butter, flavorings (fruit, nuts, etc.).

Process: Mix dry and wet ingredients separately, combine, fold in extras, pour into muffin cups, and bake.

  1. PANCAKES AND WAFFLES

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, baking powder/soda, eggs, milk, butter.

Process: Mix dry and wet ingredients separately, combine, ladle onto a griddle or waffle iron, and cook.

  1. DOUGHNUTS

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, baking powder/soda, eggs, milk, butter, flavorings.

Process: Mix ingredients, roll out dough, cut into shapes, fry, and coat with sugar or glaze.

  1. SCONES

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, baking powder, butter, eggs, milk, flavorings (raisins, berries, etc.).

Process: Cut butter into dry ingredients, add wet ingredients, fold in extras, shape into rounds, and bake.

  1. SHORTBREAD

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, butter.

Process: Cream butter and sugar, add flour, shape into rounds or bars, and bake.

  1. GINGERBREAD

Ingredients: Flour, sugar, molasses, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, baking soda, butter.

Process: Mix wet and dry ingredients, shape into cookies or a cake, and bake.

  1. PIE CRUSTS

Ingredients: Flour, butter or shortening, salt, water.

Process: Cut fat into flour, add water, form a dough, roll out, and use as a crust for pies.

TIPS

  • Measuring: Accurate measuring of ingredients is crucial for successful confectionery.
  • Room Temperature Ingredients: Many recipes call for ingredients like butter and eggs to be at room temperature.
  • Mixing Technique: Pay attention to the method of mixing (creaming, folding, etc.) as it can affect the texture of the final product.
  • Oven Temperature: Preheat the oven and monitor the temperature for even baking.

2.SUGAR BASED CONFECTIONERY

Sugar-based confectionery refers to a broad category of sweets and treats that are primarily made with sugar as a key ingredient. These confections can take various forms, textures, and flavors. Here are some common types of sugar-based confectionery:

  • HARD CANDIES

Examples: Lollipops, Jolly Ranchers, Candy Canes.

Ingredients: Sugar, corn syrup, flavorings, and colorings.

Process: Sugar is boiled to a high temperature, and flavorings/colors are added. The mixture is then poured into molds to harden.

  • CHOCOLATES

Examples: Milk chocolate, dark chocolate, white chocolate.

Ingredients: Sugar, cocoa solids, cocoa butter, milk solids (in milk chocolate), and sometimes added flavors or nuts.

Process: Cocoa beans are processed to produce cocoa solids and cocoa butter. These are then combined with sugar and other ingredients, melted, and molded into various shapes.

  • GUMMIES AND JELLIES

Examples: Gummy bears, jelly beans, fruit jellies.

Ingredients: Gelatin or pectin, sugar, flavorings, and colorings.

Process: Gelatin or pectin is mixed with sugar, water, and flavorings, then heated and poured into molds to set.

  • CARAMEL

Examples: Caramel candies, caramel sauce.

Ingredients: Sugar, butter, cream, and sometimes additional flavorings like vanilla.

Process: Sugar is melted and browned, then butter and cream are added to create a smooth, rich caramel.

  •  COTTON CANDY

Ingredients: Granulated sugar.

Process: Sugar is heated, liquefied, and then spun out through tiny holes where it solidifies in mid-air, creating fine strands of sugary goodness.

  • FUDGE

Examples: Chocolate fudge, peanut butter fudge.

Ingredients: Sugar, butter, milk, and flavorings.

Process: Sugar, butter, and milk are heated and mixed until they reach a soft-ball stage, then cooled and beaten to create a smooth, creamy texture.

  • MARSHMALLOWS

Ingredients: Sugar, water, gelatin, and sometimes corn syrup.

Process: Gelatin is mixed with sugar syrup, whipped to incorporate air, and then left to set before being cut into squares or other shapes.

  • ROCK CANDY

Ingredients: Sugar, water, and flavorings.

Process: Sugar crystals are grown by allowing a supersaturated solution of sugar and water to evaporate over time.

3.Pie dough

Pie dough is a fundamental element in pie-making and is used as the foundation for both sweet and savory pies. There are different types of pie dough, each with its own characteristics. Here are three common types of pie dough:

  • SHORTCRUST PASTRY

Ingredients:

All-purpose flour

Cold butter

Cold water

Salt (optional)

Process:

  • Combine flour and salt in a bowl.
  • Cut cold butter into small cubes and add it to the flour mixture.
  • Use a pastry cutter or fingertips to blend the butter into the flour until it resembles coarse crumbs.
  • Gradually add cold water and mix until the dough comes together.
  • Shape the dough into a disc, wrap in plastic wrap, and refrigerate before rolling out.

 

  • PÂTE BRISÉE (RICH SHORTCRUST PASTRY)

Ingredients:

All-purpose flour

Cold butter

Cold water

Egg yolk

Salt (optional)

Process:

  • Similar to shortcrust pastry, but with the addition of an egg yolk for richness.
  • Combine flour and salt, cut in cold butter, then mix in egg yolk.
  • Gradually add cold water until the dough comes together.
  • Shape, wrap, and refrigerate before rolling.

 

  • PÂTE SUCRÉE (SWEET SHORTCRUST PASTRY)

Ingredients:

All-purpose flour

Cold butter

Powdered sugar

Egg yolk

Vanilla extract

Process:

  • Combine flour and powdered sugar.
  • Cut in cold butter until the mixture resembles crumbs.
  • Mix in egg yolk and vanilla extract until the dough forms.
  • Shape, wrap, and refrigerate before rolling.

 

Tips for Making Pie Dough

 

  • Keep ingredients and equipment cold to prevent the butter from melting too quickly.
  • Handle the dough minimally to avoid overworking it, which can make the crust tough.
  • Let the dough rest in the refrigerator before rolling to relax the gluten.
  • Roll out the dough on a floured surface, turning it periodically to ensure even thickness.
  • Use the rolled-out dough to line the pie dish, then chill again before filling and baking.

 4.

1. SHORTCRUST PASTRY:

Ingredients:

  • All-purpose flour
  • Butter
  • Cold water
  • Salt (optional)

Process:

  • Combine flour and cold, diced butter until the mixture resembles breadcrumbs.
  • Add cold water gradually and mix until the dough comes together.
  • Rest the dough in the refrigerator before rolling it out for pie crusts or tarts.
  • Used for sweet and savory pies, quiches, and tarts.

2. LAMINATED PASTRY (PUFF PASTRY):

Ingredients:

Flour

Butter (or dough with butter)

Water

Salt

Process:

  • Layer butter within the dough and fold it through a series of turns.
  • Chill between turns to create layers.
  • Used for croissants, turnovers, and other flaky pastries.

3. CHOUX PASTRY:

Ingredients:

  • Water
  • Butter
  • Flour
  • Eggs

Process:

  • Heat water and butter, add flour, and cook until a dough forms.
  • Beat in eggs one at a time to create a smooth, glossy paste.
  • Pipe and bake; it puffs up during baking.
  • Used for éclairs, cream puffs, and profiteroles.

4. DANISH PASTRY:

Ingredients:

  • Flour
  • Butter
  • Milk or water
  • Yeast
  • Sugar

Process:

  • Create a yeast dough with layers of butter, similar to laminated dough.
  • Roll, fold, and chill the dough.
  • Used for pastries like danishes and cinnamon rolls.

5. MERINGUE:

Ingredients:

  • Egg whites
  • Sugar

Process:

  • Whip egg whites until stiff peaks form.
  • Gradually add sugar until glossy peaks form.
  • Used as a topping for pies (meringue pies), as a component in desserts, or piped and baked into shapes.