Introduction to HACCP

HACCP is an abbreviation for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system. It is a system which is mandatory for any food establishment from dining to manufacturing units to maintain food safety standards of highest order.For example if a restaurant is HACCP certified follows this system it is regarded as the safest place to dine outside your home.



It can be defined as a system of identification, evaluation, and control of hazards which are significant for food safety.


A Hazard in HACCP system is defined as a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of food, with the potential to cause an adverse health effect.


Critical Control Point” (CCP) in HACCP system is defined as a

step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.


HACCP was developed originally as a microbiological safety system in the early 1960s of the US astronauts as it was very important to serve them safe food in the space.The Pillsbury Company working alongside the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United

States and the US Army Laboratories developed the original system.


There are seven principles of HACCP system.These principles determine how to

establish,implement and maintain a HACCP plan for a food establishment

Principle 1-Conduct a hazard analysis

Indentification of hazards in all the steps of production, in the form of a flow chart and then,determining control and preventive measures required at every stage.

Principle 2-Identify/Determine the CCPs.

Developing the points/procedures/operational steps which can be controlled for

  • Eliminating the hazards,
  • Minimizing the likelihood of occurrence,
  • Reducing the hazards to an acceptable level.

Principle 3

Establish Critical Limits

These are target levels and tolerances called as absolute tolerance or safety limit for CCP. These should be in measurable parameters.

Principle 4

Establish a system to monitor control of the CCP by scheduled testing or observation.

Principle 5

Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is moving out of control.

Principle 6

Establish procedures for verification to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively.

Principle 7

Establish documentation concerning all procedures and records relating to the application of these principles.