Fruits and vegetables- classification and uses

Classification of Fruits

There are two criteria for the classification of fruits:

  • Whether the carpels present in gynoecium are free or in a fused state.
  • One or more flower takes part in the formation of fruit.

Types of Fruits

  • Simple
  • Aggregate
  • Composite

Simple fruit

These fruits develop from the monocarpellary ovary or multicarpellary syncarpous ovary. Only one fruit is formed by the gynoecium. Simple fruits are of two types

  • Fleshy Fruits: In fleshy fruits, the fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. These fruits develop from superior or inferior syncarpous gynoecium.
  • Dry Fruits: The pericarp of simple dry fruits is usually quite dry and hard. It is not differentiated into the three layers of epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. In some dry fruits, this pericarp is broken down and the seeds are scattered or dispersed. These fruits are dehiscent fruits.

In some fruits, the pericarp is further arranged into one or more seeded segments. Such fruits are schizocarpic fruits. In some fruits, the pericarp is not observed to be dehisced even after maturing/ripening. Such fruits are indehiscent Fruits.

Aggregate Fruits

These are the fruits that develop from the multicarpellary apocarpous ovary. It becomes a fruitlet because each carpel is separated from one another in the apocarpous ovary. These fruits make a bunch of fruitlets which is known as etaerio.

  • Etaerio of follicles: Each fruit or etaerio is a follicle. Eg. Calotropis, Catharanthus, Magnolia -e. In calotropis, the stigma is fused or joined in carpellary ovary and ovaries of ovules are separated. It means only two follicles are present in etaerio.
  • Etaerio of achenes: In this aggregate fruit, each fruit is an achene. Eg. Ranunculus, Strawberry, Rose, Lotus. In lotus, the thalamus becomes spongy and some achenes are embedded in it. In strawberry, the thalamus is fleshy and we can find small achenes on its surface.
  • Etaerio of berries: It is an aggregate of small berries. Eg. Polyalthia, Annona squamosa (Custard-apple). In the etaerio of Annona, all the berries are arranged densely on the thalamus.
  • Etaerio of drupes: In this type of fruit, many small drupes develop from different carpels. Eg. Raspberry. In this type carpel of apocarpous ovary form drupe fruit.

types of fruits

Composite Fruits

All composite fruits are false fruits. In these fruits, generally, there are many ovaries and other floral parts combining to form the fruit. These are of two types:

  • Sorosis: These fruits develop from spike, spadix or catkin inflorescence. Examples inJackfruit fruit, Kevda (screwpine). In jackfruit (Kathal) pistillate flowers are developed around the peduncle. In fruit formation, the pericarp becomes spongy and fused.
  • Sycosis: These fruits develop from hypanthodium inflorescence. Receptacle becomes hollow and has a pore. Numerous small scales surround the pore. Eg. Ficus species Peepal

USES OF FRUITS IN COOKERY ·      

  • Used in preparation of desserts.·      
  • They can also form a part of savoury dishes.·      
  • Pineapple is a delicious ingredient in pizzas.·     
  • Coconuts are an important staple of thai cuisine.·      
  • Lemon is an important fruit used in marination,preserves colour of food,stops enzymatic browning.·      
  • Fruits are also found in bakery products.·      
  • Used in preparation of puddings,squashes,tarts,compotes,sauces etc.  

Vegetable Classifications

Vegetables are classified according to which part of the plant is eaten. Some vegetables fit into more than one category when several different parts of the plant are edible, e.g. both the roots and leaves of beetroot can be eaten. Bulbs Usually grow just below the surface of the ground and produce a fleshy, leafy shoot above ground. Bulbs usually consist of layers, or clustered segments. e.g. fennel, garlic, leek, onion, shallot, spring onion

Flowers-The edible flowers of certain vegetables , e.g. artichoke (globe), broccoflower, cauliflower, broccoli, choi sum, courgette or other squash flowers, gai lan (Chinese sprouting broccoli)

Fruits-Vegetable fruit are fleshy and contain seeds,e.g. bitter melon, capsicum, chilli, choko, courgette, cucumber, eggplant, fuzzy melon, Indian marrow, marrow, plantain, pumpkin and squash, scallopini, tindora, tomatillo, tomato, turia (ribbed gourd)

Fungi-When referring to vegetables, fungi are commonly known as mushrooms,e.g.button white, Swiss brown, cup (opened not flat), enoki, oyster, Portabello (brown flat or cup), shiitake, truffle – black and white

Leaves -The edible leaves of plants e.g.bok choy, Brussels sprout, cabbage, lettuce, ong choi, puha, radicchio, silverbeet, sorrel, spinach, tat soi, tung ho, watercress, witloof, wong nga baak (Peking cabbage)

Roots-Usually a long or round-shaped taproot e.g.beetroot, carrot, celeriac, daikon, parsnip, radish, swede, turnip

Seeds– (Legumes) apart from sweet corn, seeds grow in pods which are sometimes eaten along with the seed,e.g.bean (green, French, butter, snake), broad bean, pea, snow pea, sweet corn

Stems-The edible stalks of plants when the stalk is the main part of the vegetable.E.g. asparagus, celery, kohlrabi

USES OF VEGETABLES IN COOKERY

  • Used for cooking.
  • As a separate course.
  • Making soups, stocks and sauces.
  • Used as flavorings.
  • Used for pickling.
  • Used for coloring.
  • For making desserts.
  • Used for garnishing and decoration

Classification of Fruits

There are two criteria for the classification of fruits:

  • Whether the carpels present in gynoecium are free or in a fused state.
  • One or more flower takes part in the formation of fruit.

Types of Fruits

  • Simple
  • Aggregate
  • Composite

Simple fruit

These fruits develop from the monocarpellary ovary or multicarpellary syncarpous ovary. Only one fruit is formed by the gynoecium. Simple fruits are of two types

  • Fleshy Fruits: In fleshy fruits, the fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. These fruits develop from superior or inferior syncarpous gynoecium.
  • Dry Fruits: The pericarp of simple dry fruits is usually quite dry and hard. It is not differentiated into the three layers of epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. In some dry fruits, this pericarp is broken down and the seeds are scattered or dispersed. These fruits are dehiscent fruits.

In some fruits, the pericarp is further arranged into one or more seeded segments. Such fruits are schizocarpic fruits. In some fruits, the pericarp is not observed to be dehisced even after maturing/ripening. Such fruits are indehiscent Fruits.

Aggregate Fruits

These are the fruits that develop from the multicarpellary apocarpous ovary. It becomes a fruitlet because each carpel is separated from one another in the apocarpous ovary. These fruits make a bunch of fruitlets which is known as etaerio.

  • Etaerio of follicles: Each fruit or etaerio is a follicle. Eg. Calotropis, Catharanthus, Magnolia -e. In calotropis, the stigma is fused or joined in carpellary ovary and ovaries of ovules are separated. It means only two follicles are present in etaerio.
  • Etaerio of achenes: In this aggregate fruit, each fruit is an achene. Eg. Ranunculus, Strawberry, Rose, Lotus. In lotus, the thalamus becomes spongy and some achenes are embedded in it. In strawberry, the thalamus is fleshy and we can find small achenes on its surface.
  • Etaerio of berries: It is an aggregate of small berries. Eg. Polyalthia, Annona squamosa (Custard-apple). In the etaerio of Annona, all the berries are arranged densely on the thalamus.
  • Etaerio of drupes: In this type of fruit, many small drupes develop from different carpels. Eg. Raspberry. In this type carpel of apocarpous ovary form drupe fruit.

types of fruits

Composite Fruits

All composite fruits are false fruits. In these fruits, generally, there are many ovaries and other floral parts combining to form the fruit. These are of two types:

  • Sorosis: These fruits develop from spike, spadix or catkin inflorescence. Examples inJackfruit fruit, Kevda (screwpine). In jackfruit (Kathal) pistillate flowers are developed around the peduncle. In fruit formation, the pericarp becomes spongy and fused.
  • Sycosis: These fruits develop from hypanthodium inflorescence. Receptacle becomes hollow and has a pore. Numerous small scales surround the pore. Eg. Ficus species Peepal

USES OF FRUITS IN COOKERY ·      

  • Used in preparation of desserts.·      
  • They can also form a part of savoury dishes.·      
  • Pineapple is a delicious ingredient in pizzas.·     
  • Coconuts are an important staple of thai cuisine.·      
  • Lemon is an important fruit used in marination,preserves colour of food,stops enzymatic browning.·      
  • Fruits are also found in bakery products.·      
  • Used in preparation of puddings,squashes,tarts,compotes,sauces etc.  

Vegetable Classifications

Vegetables are classified according to which part of the plant is eaten. Some vegetables fit into more than one category when several different parts of the plant are edible, e.g. both the roots and leaves of beetroot can be eaten. Bulbs Usually grow just below the surface of the ground and produce a fleshy, leafy shoot above ground. Bulbs usually consist of layers, or clustered segments. e.g. fennel, garlic, leek, onion, shallot, spring onion

Flowers-The edible flowers of certain vegetables , e.g. artichoke (globe), broccoflower, cauliflower, broccoli, choi sum, courgette or other squash flowers, gai lan (Chinese sprouting broccoli)

Fruits-Vegetable fruit are fleshy and contain seeds,e.g. bitter melon, capsicum, chilli, choko, courgette, cucumber, eggplant, fuzzy melon, Indian marrow, marrow, plantain, pumpkin and squash, scallopini, tindora, tomatillo, tomato, turia (ribbed gourd)

Fungi-When referring to vegetables, fungi are commonly known as mushrooms,e.g.button white, Swiss brown, cup (opened not flat), enoki, oyster, Portabello (brown flat or cup), shiitake, truffle – black and white

Leaves -The edible leaves of plants e.g.bok choy, Brussels sprout, cabbage, lettuce, ong choi, puha, radicchio, silverbeet, sorrel, spinach, tat soi, tung ho, watercress, witloof, wong nga baak (Peking cabbage)

Roots-Usually a long or round-shaped taproot e.g.beetroot, carrot, celeriac, daikon, parsnip, radish, swede, turnip

Seeds– (Legumes) apart from sweet corn, seeds grow in pods which are sometimes eaten along with the seed,e.g.bean (green, French, butter, snake), broad bean, pea, snow pea, sweet corn

Stems-The edible stalks of plants when the stalk is the main part of the vegetable.E.g. asparagus, celery, kohlrabi

USES OF VEGETABLES IN COOKERY

  • Used for cooking.
  • As a separate course.
  • Making soups, stocks and sauces.
  • Used as flavorings.
  • Used for pickling.
  • Used for coloring.
  • For making desserts.
  • Used for garnishing and decoration