The word “Communication” has come from the Latin word “communis”, which means common. Thus, communication signifies sharing of ideas in common.

Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages. However, communication is effective only when the message is understood and when it stimulates action or encourages the receiver to think in new ways.”

Principles of effective communication

1. Practical,

2. Factual,

3. Clear and brief,

4. Target-oriented,

5. Persuasive.

Importance of good communication

Team building – Building effective teams is really all about how those team members communicate and collaborate together. This, in turn, will improve morale and employee satisfaction.

Gives everyone a voice – As mentioned above, employee satisfaction can rely a lot on their having a voice and being listened to, whether it be in regards to an idea they have had or about a complaint they need to make. Well established lines of communication should afford everyone, no matter their level, the ability to freely communicate with their peers, colleagues and superiors.

Innovation – Where employees are enabled to openly communicate ideas without fear of ridicule or retribution they are far more likely to bring their idea to the table.

Growth – Communication can be viewed both internally and externally. By being joined up internally and having strong lines of communication you are ensuring that the message you are delivering externally is consistent.

Strong management – When managers are strong communicators, they are better able to manage their teams. Strong communication is not just the ability to speak to people but to empower them to speak to each other.

Types of communication

1. Formal

The movement of official information through pre-defined path. Followed by record taking.

2. Informal communication

The casual communication between staffs , colleagues without maintain any records.

3. Verbal

Verbal communication is the use of language to transfer information through speaking or sign language. It is one of the most common types, often used during presentations, video conferences and phone calls, meetings and one-on-one conversations. Verbal communication is important because it is efficient. It can be helpful to support verbal communication with both nonverbal and written communication.

4. Nonverbal

It is the use of body language, gestures and facial expressions to convey information to others. It can be used both intentionally and unintentionally. For example, you might smile unintentionally when you hear a pleasing or enjoyable idea or piece of information. Nonverbal communication is helpful when trying to understand others’ thoughts and feelings.

3. Written

Written communication is the act of writing, typing or printing symbols like letters and numbers to convey information. It is helpful because it provides a record of information for reference. Writing is commonly used to share information through books, pamphlets, blogs, letters, memos and more. Emails and chats are a common form of written communication in the workplace.

Essentials of good business letter

I. Inner Quality

It refers to the quality of language used and the presentation of a business letter. They are

1. Clear

The language used in the business letter must be clear. It helps the receiver to understand the message immediately, easily, and clearly. Any ambiguity will lead to the misinterpretation of the message stated.

2. Simple

The language used in the business letter must be simple and easy. One must not write a business letter in difficult and fancy words.

3. Concise

The message written in the letter must be concise and to the point.

4. Concrete

The message is written must be concrete and specific. By using concrete language, a reader will have a clear picture of the message.

5. Accuracy

One must always check for the accuracy of the business letter. Accuracy generally means no error in grammar, spelling, punctuations etc. Correct personnel should be targeted for communication.

6. Coherent

The language used in the business letter must be coherent. The message must be in a logical way for the clear understanding of the message. The flow of the message must be consistent.

7. Complete

One must write a complete message. It helps the reader to know about the issue and the solution to be taken. It should provide all the necessary information. One must also keep in mind that the message should be concise and short along with the complete details.

8. Relevance

The letter should only contain important information. Irrelevant information should not be included and avoided in any business communication.

9. Courteous

The language used in the business letter must be courteous. A writer must always use open, friendly, and honest wording in his letter. It does not mean that one must use slang and abusive words. One must always add the words like please, thank you etc.

10. Neatness

A business letter must be neatly typed or handwritten. Proper spacing, indention, and use of paragraph should be used.

II. Outer Quality

The outer quality of a business letter means the quality of its outer appearance. The outer look of the letter must be catchy and impressive. Some of the outer qualities are

1. Size of the Paper

The standard size of paper should be used. An A4 paper is the most used paper for writing a business letter.

2. Quality of the Paper

The quality of the paper used must be good. It is not always possible for a firm to use the costly paper. One must use good quality paper for original copy and ordinary copy for the duplicate copy.

3. The Color of the Paper

Sometimes it is very useful to use the different color of paper for different types of letter. The receiver can clearly understand the intention and the purpose of the letter by its color.

4. Folding of Letter

One must fold the letter properly and uniformly. The folding must be done to fit the letter in the envelope. It is noticeable that one must not over fold the letter. It will have a bad impression on the reader’s mind.

5. Envelope

The envelope used must be of good quality. Special attention must be given to the size of the envelope for fitting the letter.

Letter writing


A circular letter is used to share the same information with a large audience. It differs in purpose from a personal letter, which sends particular information to one or a few recipients. Circular letters are often used to announce new information or to clarify policies.


Short for “memorandum,” a memo is a type of document used to communicate with others in the same organization. Memos (or memoranda) are typically used for fairly short messages of one page or less, but informal reports of several pages may also employ memo format.


Notice is a written or printed information or news announcement. Notices are either displayed at prominent places or published in newspapers/ magazines. It is meant only for a select group. Since a notice contains a formal announcement or information, its tone and style is formal and factual. Its language should be simple and formal. Notice is always brief and to the point.

Unofficial Note

It should be made by sending a note on the file itself.This method should be generally employed between Divisions of an organization and Division and attached departments where authorized.


Application a formal request to be considered for a position or to be allowed to do or have something, submitted to an authority, institution, or organization.


It is an abbreviation for biographical data.It is generally 2-3 pages long and is used for employment.

Cover letter

Cover letter is a one-page document that you submit as part of your job application (alongside your CV or Resume). Its purpose is to introduce you and briefly summarize your professional background.

Invitation letter

It is a letter written to invite people to a particular event. This can be written for a marriage, engagement, graduation ceremony, exhibition, annual day, etc. It can be a formal as well as an informal letter. It can be written by an individual or an organization addressed to a person or an organization.


Greeting someone you know is a vital part of courtesy and goodwill. All societies have some form of greeting. They are basic to civilized interaction.


Apologies are multifaceted communication behaviors that occur following relational transgressions. Offenders may use apologies to alleviate their own guilt, fulfill social obligations, repair relationships, and/or express genuine contrition for wrongdoing. Offended parties may choose to accept or reject apologies, although there are social expectations for acceptance. Accepted apologies offer a chance for re‐normalization, while rejected apologies may signal the end of a relationship.

Communication with Guests and body language

Excellent communication skills can enhance a guests experience as it shows that you are listening to them, valuing their feedback and conveying clear messages. This can lead to customer loyalty, increased business and eventually the hotel becoming more successful. Listen to your employees these are the ones who are dealing with the guests on a day-to-day basis. Really listen, it is easy to hear but not listen. When we really listen we understand what the other person is saying and react in a meaningful manner.

The body language that you use ultimately changes your tone of voice and your mindset.” 

  • Have an open posture. Be relaxed, but don’t slouch! Sit or stand upright and place your hands by your sides. Avoid standing with your hands on your hips,
  • Use a firm handshake. But don’t get carried away! You don’t want it to become awkward or, worse, painful for the other person. If it does, you’ll likely come across as rude or aggressive.
  • Maintain good eye contact. Try to hold the other person’s gaze for a few seconds at a time. This will show her that you’re sincere and engaged. But, avoid turning it into a staring match!
  • Avoid touching your face,hair. Avoid playing with your hair or touching your mouth or nose, while communicating.

A good listener

Many people often talk too much, but are hard to listen. As a hotelier, you must understand one key to open the door of guests’ satisfaction: willingness to listen. Guests are kingsListen to any word they say or write to you. Give response only when you are required to give. Otherwise, just be a good listener. But kings are not always right so be wise when dealing with their orders.

Note-taking method

This method can be used in a variety of situations but works best if there is a relatively clear structure.


  • Highlights the key points in a logical way
  • Ease of use allows to focus
  • Reduces the reviewing and editing time
  • Helps to remember

Speech improvement

To communicate clearly when you are speaking in English, it’s important to stress the correct syllables in each word. This is called word stress, which means pronouncing one syllable of a multisyllabic word with greater emphasis (stress) than the other syllables in the word. Here are four general rules to keep in mind about word stress as you practice pronunciation:

The pace of voice:

Speaking to an audience requires a pace slower than normal conversation, the pace can be varied to create different effects.

The tone of voice: 

The tone is a vocal quality which Express how is the feeling you have. Tone can reflect the sincere effort and hard work. Never increase tone to guests.

Pitch of voice:  

A low pitch voice is pleasing to the audience and a comfortable for the speaker to variation of pitch can also be very effective while speaking in front of an audience.

The volume of voice: 

The voice should always be loud enough for every listener to listen comfortably that means the last person who to set at last batch can also listen properly.


Pausing can focus attention on what has been said, what is about to be said and can be used to prepare the right audience to change the idea and clarify the thought to deliver the message.


A word that you are repeating is a phrase or an idea that is useful to emphasize what exactly you want to convey to your audience.

Word choice: 

According to the situation or appropriate words must be chosen. Choose the word which is comfortable for your listeners, he or she can listen understand properly don’t make jargon with complicated vocabularies. This was just how complicated or you just showing how intelligent you are?

Communicating, in a meaningful way is not necessarily a natural skill. It is important that managers and staff are trained to communicate effectively. Effective hotel managers have developed the ability to communicate “how” and “why” things are done. Once people know why something is to be done they are then in a position to improve how things are done. This encourages innovation and constant improvement from the bottom-up and not simply presenting information and procedures from the top-down and helps keep staff motivated.

Spelling words in English is challenging work. As a matter of fact, many native speakers of English have problems with spelling correctly. One of the main reasons for this is that many, many English words are NOT spelled as they are spoken. This difference between pronunciation and spelling causes a lot of confusion. The combination “ough” provides an excellent example:

  • Tough – pronounced – tuf (the ‘u’ sounding as in ‘cup’)
  • Through – pronounced – throo
  • Dough – pronounced – doe (long ‘o’)
  • Bought – pronounced – bawt

Three Syllables Pronounced as Two Syllables

  • Aspirin – pronounced – asprin
  • Different – pronounced – diffrent
  • Every – pronounced – evry

Four Syllables Pronounced as Three Syllables

  • Comfortable – pronounced – comfrtable
  • Temperature – pronounced – temprature
  • Vegetable – pronounced – vegtable

Words That Sound the Same (Homophones)

  • two, to, too – pronounced – too
  • knew, new – pronounced – niew
  • through, threw – pronounced – throo
  • not, knot, naught – pronounced – not

Same Sounds – Different Spellings

‘Eh’ as in ‘Let’

  • let
  • bread
  • said

‘Ai’ as in ‘I’

  • I
  • sigh
  • buy
  • either

The following letters are silent when pronounced.

  • D – sandwich, Wednesday
  • G – sign, foreign
  • GH – daughter, light, right
  • H – why, honest, hour
  • K – know, knight, knob
  • L – should, walk, half
  • P – cupboard, psychology
  • S – island
  • T – whistle, listen, fasten
  • U – guess, guitar
  • W – who, write, wrong

Unusual Letter Combinations

  • GH = ‘F’: cough, laugh, enough, rough
  • CH = ‘K’: chemistry, headache, Christmas, stomach
  • EA = ‘EH’: breakfast, head, bread, instead
  • EA = ‘EI’: steak, break
  • EA = ‘EE’: weak, streak
  • OU = ‘UH’: country, double, enough

Activities To Improve Communication Skills

Back-to-back drawing

For this team-building activity, you’ll need an even number of people so everyone has a partner. Once everyone is paired off, sit or stand back to back. You can use a pen and paper or draw on a whiteboard. One person will take the role of the speaker and the other takes the part of the listener. For five to 10 minutes, the speaker will describe a geometric image from a prepared set of cards and the listener will try to draw the image strictly from the speaker’s description. Afterward, discuss the steps that were taken to ensure the instructions were clear and how this could be implied in real-life interactions. The person drawing can also share what was constructive about the instructions and what they would have done differently if they had been allowed to communicate back to the speaker.

Zen counting

For this exercise, have your team sit in a circle facing away from one another. In no particular order, have them start counting from one to 10—or you could count higher if you had more team members— with each member saying only one number. If someone talks over someone or repeats a number, the exercise starts back at one. This exercise creates stillness and encourages team members to listen closely to one another.

Truth and lies

This exercise is best practiced with five or more people. Have each person come up with three facts and one lie about themselves. The lie should be something that’s plausible. After someone reads their list aloud, the rest of the team is left to guess which statements are true and which are a lie. This helps teams to improve communication by getting to know one another better. It also gives introverts a chance to share facts about themselves that others may have been unaware of

Electronic modes of communication:

  • Use of Telephone
  • Phone should be answered within three rings.
  • Smile even though you are on the telephone.
  • Sit or stand up straight.
  • Use a low voice pitch.
  • Match your speaking rate to the caller’s.
  • Avoid extremes in volume.

Email and protocol

There are rules for them to manage the messages so the professionalism and politeness are kept.

1.    Subject
Subject line is very important. Email with no subject can be seen as spam or junk.. Subject is also useful if you want the recipients to read your email first by writing words like [URGENT] as their inbox might be filled with many emails. Please remember that you cannot write subject header with “Hello” or “Hi”. Subject line must be relevant with your messages

2.   Header
Do not forget to change the header to correspond with the subject. By giving a new header, the recipients can find a certain document you sent in their inbox folder without having to check your emails one by one.

3.   Respect and personal,

you have to show respect for example by giving a certain greeting. “Dear Mr. Anil” or “Dear Anil” is fine. Make sure you write the name of the recipient so it will be more personal.

4.   Tone
Unlike the face-to-face communication where communication is delivered verbally, exchanging emails need a specific tone so the reader can read the text carefully. Tone is crucial as it helps the reader to correctly understand the text.

5.   Spelling and grammar
The message you write represents who you are. So make sure you have checked all the spellings and grammar before sending the email.

6.   Short message
Do not write a long email. Three or four paragraphs are enough with two or three sentences per paragraph.

7.   Signature
Signature is totally important. Never forget to put your name below the message. You may also need to add contact information like street address, fax and phone. The signature helps you to show your professionalism.

8.  Quick response
Expecting a quick response is okay, but do not insist to have your email responded like 5 minutes after the sending.