Contents

COMMUNICATION NOTES

CHAPTER 1.BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

A.NEED

B.PURPOSE

C.NATURE

D.MODELS

E.BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

F.OVERCOMING BARRIERS

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

INTRODUCTION

Communication is not just exchange of message or message itself. It is more than that. It is the essence of business communication. More so, because, it is how a mutual understanding is generated between sender and receiver, where the sender generates the message. The organization has to communicate inside and outside with people to achieve its goal. Business communication thus cannot be called simple communication as we understand , however, it has many parameters attached to it because the need of business communication is related the goals, objectives, mission and vision of an organisation.

 

DEFINITION OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

 

Business communication is defined as the sharing information between organization and its people both in external and internal environment such that the organizational goals are met with least errors and improving organizational practices.

 

Need Of Business Communication

 

1.To carry the basic functions of management,

that are,planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling effectively

 

2.To manage constant flow of information.

It can flow vertically, horizontally and diagonally.Lot of business success depends upon how well these channels of communication work.

 

3. To direct and control the people in the organization.

Organizations are very large with lot of procedures, formal and informal communication. Also verbal and non-verbal communication takes place. It involves number of people at various levels of hierarchy in an organization. Greater the number of levels, the more difficult is the job of managing the organization. Immediate feedback can be obtained and misunderstandings if any can be avoided through effective business communication.

4.To communicate the rules, regulations and policies of an organization to people within and outside the organization.

5.To build good will of an organization.

 

PURPOSE OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

  1. For instruction
  2. For integration
  3. For information
  4. For evaluation
  5. For direction
  6. For teaching
  7. For influencing
  8. For image building
  9. For employees orientation

 

  1. For instruction: Under this, the communicator transmits with necessary directives and guidance to the next level, so as to enable them to accomplish his particular tasks. In this, instructions basically flow from top to the lower level.

 

  1. For integration: It involves bringing about inter-relationship among the various functions of the business organization. It helps in the unification of different management functions.

 

  1. For information: The purposes or function of communication in an organization is to inform the individual or group about the particular task or company policies and procedures etc. Top management informs policies to the lower level through the middle level.In turn,the lower level informs the top level the reaction through the middle level.Information can flow vertically, horizontally and diagonally across the organization.Becoming informed or inform others is the main purpose of communication.

 

  1. For evaluation: Communication is a tool to appraise the individual or team, their contribution to the organization. Evaluating one’s own inputs or other’s outputs or some ideological scheme demands an adequate and effective communication process.

 

  1. For direction: Communication is necessary to issue directions by the top management or manager to the lower level. Directing others may be communicated either orally or in writing.

 

  1. For teaching: A complete communication process is required to teach and educate workers about personal safety or some other similar things on the job. This communication helps the workers to avert accidents, risk and avoid cost etc.

 

  1. For influencing: The individual having potential to influence others can easily persuade others. It implies the provision of feedback which tells the effect of communication.

 

  1. For image building: Goodwill and confidence are necessarily created among the public. It can be done by the communication with the different media, which has to project the image of the organization in the society. Through an effective external communication system, an enterprise has to inform the society about its goals, activities, progress and social responsibility.
  2. For employees orientation: When a new employee enter into the organization at that time he or she will be unknown to the organization programs, policies, culture etc. Communication helps to make people acquainted with the co-employees, superior and with the policies, objectives, rules and regulations of the organization.

NATURE OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

 

1.Communication is Pervasive function

2.Communication flows everywhere

3.Involves two or more persons

4.Mutual understanding

5.It has many channels

6.Communication is a two-way process

7.Influencing human behaviour

MODELS OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

 

  1. Aristotle’s persuasion Model
  2. Newcomb’s Inter-Personal Communication Model
  3. Hoveland’s Persuasion Model
  4. Thayer’s Organizational Communication Model
  5. Shanon and Weaver’s Informational Theory Model
  6. Collin and Guetzkowr’s Group Communication Model
  7. Circular Model of Communication
  8. Interactional Model of Communication
  9. Berlo’s S-M-C-R model
  10. Modern Model of Communication

BARRIERS IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

For any kind of communication to be successful, it is essential that the receiver attributes the same meaning to the message as intended by the sender of the message. The receiver encounters various barriers while the message travels receiver along its passage between the receiver and the sender. This is also called miscommunication.

Some of the common problems that lead to the failure of communication are:

  • Noise,
  • Cultural
  • Differences,
  • Complexity of subject matter,
  • Personal biases,
  • Semantic problems,
  • Socio-psychological barriers,
  • Filtering,
  • Information overload,
  • Poor retention,
  • Poor listening,
  • Goal conflicts,
  • Inferring, etc.

 

TYPES OF BARRIERS IN COMMUNICATION

 

Barriers to communication can be classified into the following broad categories

 

1) Physical or environmental barriers,

2) Physiological or biological barriers,

3) Semantic or language barriers,

4) Personal barriers,

5) Emotional or perceptional barriers,

6) Socio-psychological barriers,

7) Cultural barriers, and

8) Organizational barriers.

 

 

1.PHYSICAL OR ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIERS/NOISE

 

Noise in the environment where the message travels,who sends the message,who receives the message their mental state,,perception and surroundings all or one or in any cambination may create noise.

 

 Examples of Noise in Communication

 

  • The noise of the traffic around a school obstructs the smooth flow of information between the teacher and the students.

 

  • Poor signal or static while talking over the cell phone or while using the public address system or while watching TV also distorts the sound signals and disrupts communication.
  • Bad weather conditions may also sometimes interfere with the transmission of signals and may lead to breakdown of the communication channels.

 

Other physical or environmental barriers

 

  • Technical defects in the means of communication
  • Certain disturbances in the surrounding
  • Wrong selection of medium,
  • Lack of acoustics,
  • Poor lighting,
  • Frequent movements of hands,
  • Fiddling with a pen, or
  • Even serving of tea during an important
  • Conversation

TIME & DISTANCE

Information travels very fast across the world due to technological advancements.Real time information is the buzzword.It becomes sometimes near to impossible to deal with information.For example people across the world live in different time zones to be on a videoconferencing,for example at the same time may be difficult.

 

Faulty seating arrangements in a classroom may be other example,as people not having eye contact with the speaker will lead to mis-commnunication.

WRONG CHOICE OF MEDIUM

For example using charts,graphs or power point presentations for an audience who is illiterate on these.

SURROUNDINGS

  • Adverse weather conditions
  • Noises of people,sound systems
  • Presence of seniors,Boss,managers etc.
  • Different Country,culture or geogarphic location etc.

PHYSIOLOGICAL/BIOLOGICAL BARRIERS

Physical fitness is an important aspect for communication vocal chord,hands,fingers,eyes,ears all have functions in communication.Any kind of physiological or biological fault will hamper communication like stammering,fumbling,problem in limbs,poor eyesight etc.

 

 CHAPTER -2 LISTENING ON THE JOB

 

 A.DEFINITION

B.LEVELS AND TYPES OF LISTENING

C.LISTENING BARRIERS

D.GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING

E.LISTENING COMPUTERIZATION AND NOTE

INTRODUCTION

 

Listening is key to all effective communication, without the ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood – communication breaks down.The sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.

Listening is so important that many top employers provide listening skills training for their employees.

Great listening skills can lead to:

  • Better customer satisfaction,
  • Greater productivity with fewer mistakes,
  • Increased sharing of information
    i.Increased creativity                                                                                                                                                            ii.Increased innovative work.

Many successful leaders and entrepreneurs credit their success to effective listening skills. Richard Branson frequently quotes listening as one of the main factors behind the success of Virgin.

Effective listening is a skill that underpins all positive human relationships, spend some time thinking about and developing your listening skills – they are the building blocks of success.

 

DEFINITION

 Listening is the ability to accurately receive and interpret messages in the communication process.

LEVELS OF LISTENING

1.IGNORING

2.PRETEND LISTENING

3.SELECTIVE LISTENING

4.ATTENTIVE LISTENING

5.EMPATHIC LISTENING

 IGNORING-When a listener is not at all focused on what is being spoken by a speaker and it is visible to the speaker.

PRETEND LISTENING-When a listener is giving signals that he or she is interested in what is being said ,however actually he/she is not.It may not be visible initially.

SELECTIVE LISTENING-When a listerner is listening to a speaker to make his/her point.Here the listener will focus on selective part of whta is being spoken and understand the message according to his/her convenience.

ATTENTIVE LISTENING-When a listener is listening to a speaker with interest,giving his/her time,attention and sympathy.This leads to affective communication.

EMPATHIC LISTENING-When a listener is listening at the same level from where the speaker is speaking matching the feelings of the speaker.Feel the feelings of the speaker and listen.

 

 TYPES OF LISTENING

1.DISCRIMINATIVE LISTENING

2.COMPREHENSION LISTENING

3.EVALUATIVE LISTENING

4.ATTENTIVE LISTENING

5.PRETENCE LISTENING

6.SELECTIVE LISTENING

7.INTUITIVE LISTENING

 

  • DISCRIMINATIVE LISTENING-When a listener is decoding the message only  through the vocal cues of the speaker like pitch,tone,volume etc.
  • COMPREHENSION LISTENING- When a listener is decoding the message as is encoded through words,sentences,phrases of a language as well as vocal cues.
  • EVALUATIVE LISTENING- When a listener is using his or her judgments for decoding the message of a sender about what the speaker want to say/convey.
  • ATTENTIVE LISTENING-When we listen without judgement & advice and reflect by paraphrasing and nodding giving attention to what is being spoken it is called attentive listening.

  • PRETENCE LISTENING-When we convey through our facial expression that we are listening to what is being spoken however actually we are not, it is called pretence listening.

  • SELECTIVE LISTENING-When we are listening to only those things which we want to hear or listen and give our viewpoints only on selected things rather than the whole message it is called selective listening.

  • INTUITIVE LISTENING-It is the highest order of listening because we not only listen to what is being said however we also tune ourselves to the pitch, tone, volume as well as essence of what is being said without considering how the speaker feels.

 

 BARRIERS TO LISTENING 

A barrier to listening is anything/something which hinders in recognition,understanding and accurate interpretation of the message that is being sent to you by the speaker.

There are five basic barriers to communication

1.INFORMATION OVERLOAD

2.PERSONAL CONCERNS/ISSUES

3.OUTSIDE DISTRACTIONS/ENVIRONMENTAL DISTRACTIONS

4.PREJUDICE

5.RATE OF SPEECH & THOUGHT

Information load

Too many statistics,too many speakers speaking on the same topic and we coming across many people in a day communicating to us on various topics leads to information overload making us overwhelmed.

How to overcome?

Have an internal mechanism of filtering.Write notes on daily basis,keep only relevant & required information.

Personal concerns/issues

 

GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING

 

  • Concentration
  • Eye Contact
  • Attention
  • Receptive body language
  • Objective
  • Questioning/Clarifying
  • Leaving the channel open

 

CHAPTER-3 EFFECTIVE SPEAKING

  1. Restaurant and hotel English
  2. Polite and effective enquiries and responses
  3. Addressing a group
  4. Essential qualities of a good speaker
  5. Audience analysis
  6. Defining the purpose of a speech, organizing the ideas and delivering the speech

1.RESTAURANT AND HOTEL ENGLISH

A.RESTAURANT ENGLISH PHRASES FOR WAITERS/WAITRESSES

1.GENERAL RESTAURANT PHRASES IN ENGLISH

  1. Hi, I’m Anil, I’ll be your server for tonight.
  2. What can I do for you?
  3. Can I help you?
  4. Can I take your coat?
  5. Have you booked a table?
  6. How many of you are there?
  7. Would you follow me, please?
  8. Can I take your order, sir/madam? Can I take your order, Sir/ Madam?
  9. Are you ready to order?
  10. Can I take your order?
  11. Are you ready to order yet?
  12. What would you like to start with?
  13. What would you like for a starter?
  14. Anything to drink?
  15. What would you like to start with?
  16. What would you like to drink?
  17. What would you like for dessert?
  18. How would you like your steak? (rare, medium, well done)
  19. Do you want a salad with it?
  20. What kind of dressing?
  21. Anything to drink?
  22. Do you want a dessert?
  23. Is everything all right?
  24. Did you enjoy your meal?
  25. Are you paying together?
  26. May I show you to a table?
  27. If you wait, there’ll be a table for you free in a minute.
  28. Do you want vegetables with it?
  29. Why don’t you try the pizza?
  30. It’ll take about 20 minutes.
  31. Do you want a salad with it?
  32. How would you like your steak?
  33. Do you want vegetables with it?
  34. Why don’t you try the pizza?
  35. Can I start you off with anything to drink?
  36. May I get you anything to drink?
  37. What would you like for dessert?
  38. Do you want a dessert?
  39. What would you like to drink with your meal?
  40. Would you like any wine with that?
  41. Can I get you a drink while you’re waiting?
  42. Would you like any coffee?
  43. Would you like an appetizer?
  44. Can I get you anything else?
  45. Would you like to order anything else?
  46. Would you like to try our dessert special?
  47. What did you want to order?
  48. Would you like coffee or tea with your dessert?
  49. Would you like dessert after your meal?
  50. What would you like to drink?
  51. Would you like to see our dessert menu?
  52. Would you like to finish your evening with us with some dessert?
  53. I don’t think we have anymore steak left. I’ll check with the kitchen.
  54. I’m sorry, but the king prawn soup is finished.
  55. Sorry, the hamburgers are off.

 

B.RESTAURANT ENGLISH CONVERSATION

I.Making a Reservation

Restaurant staff: This is Holiday Restaurant.

Customer: Hi, I would like to make a dinner reservation for 5 people.

Restaurant staff: What night will you be coming?

Customer: We will need the reservation for Tomorrow night.

Restaurant staff: What time would you like?

Customer: 7.30.

Restaurant staff: We don’t have anything available at 7.30. Is 8.30 OK?

Customer: Yes, that’s fine.

Restaurant staff: Please just give me your name.

Customer: My name is Jagdish Desai.

Restaurant staff: Thank you, Mr. Desai, see you this Sunday at 8.30.

Customer: Thank you. Bye.

 

ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF A GOOD SPEAKER    

  • CONFIDENCE

  • PASSION

  • ABILITY TO BE SUCCINT

  • ABILITY TO TELL A STORY

  • AUDIENCE AWARENESS

CONFIDENCE

1.To be seen as an expert on the Topic.

2.To gain trust of the audience and thus thoughts and topic of the speaker is excepted by the audience.

3.Builds credibility.

4.Makes the speaker knowledgeable and believable in the eyes of the audience.

5.Audience will feel connected with you if you are confident enough to be yourself.

PASSION

1..Why you do what you do?

2.Why you love to do what you do?

3.Why you want to share what you do

To be passionate about a topic answer these three questions to understand whether you are passionate about your topic or not.If you are not able to answer these either leave the topic or prepare more.

ABILITY TO BE SUCCINT

1.Keep your presentation short,simple and to the point because attention span of the audience is very short.

2.Glide through your speech/presentation smoothly & effectively.

3.If you have alonger speech/presentation divide it into segments and engage audience to keep tham on feet.

ABILITY TO TELL A STORY

1.Do not present ,however. share stories.

 A.Your own stories in context with the topic.

B.Your past experiences related to the topic or how you reached where you are today.

C.Stories of people around you,from history or other sources related to the topic.

2.Stories make your audience relate to the topic,retain information and engage audience. 

AUDIENCE AWARENESS

1.Know your audience before presenting.

2.Know who they are and  what they do.

3.Audience awareness mold you as  an audience oriented speaker rather than self-oriented speaker.

4.Audience awared speaker tend to deliver knowledge which the audience can easily grasp and retain for longer time.

 

BODY LANGUAGE FOR EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SPEAKING

 

  • Do not stand stiffly.
  • Do not lock knees.
  • Keep eye contact.
  • Keep your hand moments limited/as neccessary.
  • Do not show any mannerism.
  • Do not walk fast.
  • Do not stork or flamingo.
  • Do not sway.
  • Do not rock.
  • Do not lean on podium.
  • Do not dance.
  • Do not kick
  • Do not cross legs.

 AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

 DEFINITION

It can be defined as identification of the audience and adapting a speech to their interests, level of understanding, attitudes, and beliefs.

TYPES OF AUDIENCE ANALYSIS

  • Demographic,
  • Psychographic and
  • Situational analysis.

DEMOGRAPHIC

This audience analysis addresses who your audience is in terms of

  • age,
  • race,
  • religion,
  • education,
  • income,
  • occupation and
  • group affiliation

PSYCHOGRAPHIC

This audience analysis explores an audience’s attitudes toward the speaker and topic.


SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

This audience analysis focuses on the physical environment in which presentation will be done and answer the questions why the audience will attend.

Audience Analysis Methods

Direct observation-Past experience and the present situational analysis of the audience builds this method of audience analysis.

Interview-The hosts/audience member/s can give an interview to the presenter for having more deep insights about the audience.

Survey-A questionaire form or other methods can be adopted to do a Survey for gathering deeper information about the audience where stakes are very high for the presenter.

Focus group or existing data-Also we can generate audience analysis via a similar focus group or an existing data.This is an easiest method to generate audience analysis.

Defining the purpose of a speech, organizing the ideas and delivering the speech.

PURPOSE OF SPEECH HAS TWO PARTS

GENERAL PURPOSE

The general purpose of speech is to

INFORM

PERSUADE;AND

ENTERTAIN THE AUDIENCE.

All speeches fall into one of these categories.You will be informed about the general purpose of speech,however, SPECIFIC PURPOSE of speech is to be found by the speaker himself/herself.

SPECIFIC PURPOSE

It is an idea or ststement depicting the direction of speed beyond general purpose.

Depending upon the general purpose the following questions will help you to define general purpose of speech.

What are you informing the audience of?

What are you trying to persuade the audience to do?

How are you entertaining your audience? What is your focus?

ORGANIZING IDEAS

Wegather information about a topic through prewriting activities and readings. The more we go through the pieces of information , the more we will begin to see the connections between them. Patterns and gaps may begin to stand out. 

However,only when we start to organize our ideas we will  be able to translate our raw insights into a form that will communicate meaning to the audience.

So writing via organized idea will make your speech worth in terms of information and keeping the audience at toes while you deliver.

HOW TO ORGANIZE IDEA

There are three ways to organize idea.

CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER

To explain the history of the topic/event

To explain how to do or make something

To explain the steps in process

To help the audience to visualize something as you want them to see.

SPATIAL ORDER

To create main idea/impression using senses-sight,touch,taste,smell and sound.

To persuade or convince the audience.

ORDER OF IMPORTANCE

To rank the topics/subtopics/ideas/sub-ideas according to their importance,benefit or significance.

DELIVERING THE SPEECH

1.Make a good set of notes and practice your presentation.

2.Dress according to occassion.Tidy yourself up.

3.Make sure your hairs not falling on your face.

4.Avoid wearing hat or cap as it will obscure your face.

5.Arrange the environment to suit your presentation

 i.Get rid of distractions.

ii.Erase needless information from the board.

iii.Turn off equipment which you are not going to use.

iv.Close or open windows,blinds and doors to aid

a.audience visibility

b.hearing;and

c.comfort.

v.Turn on enough light so that people can adequately see you,your eyes and your facial expression.

6.Check the adio-visual equipments before the presentation.Have a backup plan in case it fails.

7.Make sure that all your notea and other materials are ready in proper order before you begin.

8.don not chew gum or any food.

10.Do not hold pin,pen,pencil or any other such equipment which you may twiddle and distract your listeners.

11.Stand or sit up straight with your weight balanced.

12.Avoid slumping,twisting or leaning on the lectern,table or computer.

13.Don’t  stand in light from the projector.

14.Make eye contact before you start to speak,as you normally do in beginning of conversation.

15.Don’t start with “um” or “ok”.

16.Talk to your listeners as if you are having conversation with them.

i.Make plenty of eye to eye contact with members of your presentation

ii.Focus on sharing your ideas.Communicate.

17.Use your voice expressively and meaningfully

i.MINIMIZE UHS,UMS,OHS,LIKES,Y’KNOWS

ii.DON’T MUMBLE.PRONOUNCE & ENUNCIATE WORDS CLEARLY.

iii.CONSIDERING AUDIENCE,PLACE AND TOPIC SPEAK WITH APPROPRIATE LOUDNESS AND SPEED.

iv.AVOID MONOTONY BUT USE VARIATIONS IN SPEED ,INFLECTIONS AND FORCE TO ENHANCE YOUR MEANING AND HOLD AUDIENCE ATTENTION.

18.Use your body expressively and meaningfully

i.LOOK INTERESTED IN YOUR TOPIC.SHOW ENTHUSIASM,SINCERITY AND COMMINTMENT.

ii.MINIMIZE DISTRACTING MANNERISMS AND AIMLESSLY SHIFTING WEIGHT OR MOVING ABOUT.

iii.USE GESTURE AND MOVEMENT NATURALLY TO DESCRIBE THINGS.

 

3 E’s OF EFFECTIVE DELIVERY

EYE CONTACT

ENERGY

EXPRESSION

04 NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION

1.Definition, its importance and its inevitability

2.Kinesics: Body movements, facial expressions, posture, eye contact etc.

3.Proxemics: The communication by use of space

4.Paralanguage: Vocal behaviour and its impact on verbal communication

5.Communicative use of artifacts – furniture, plants, colours, architects etc.

NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

INTRODUCTION

What do you understand by non-verbal communication?

Non-verbal communication is that aspect of communication which cannot be expressed in words.It is assumed that “one cannot not communicate’,also it is assumed that all movements to some degree are expressive.

Non-verbal communication is inherently multi-disciplinary.It has roots in various field for example psychology, linguistics, medicine,sociology,anthropology,ethology and law to name a few.

The non-verbal communication includes how we express our emotions,perceptions and state of mind through non-verbal ways.Facial,vocal and postural  expressions, touch,proxemics(space between two humans) ,gaze,physical attractiveness,facial morphology, appearnace,material objects and kinesics (the study of body movement) are the dimensions of Non-verbal communication.

So even our verbal and written communication includes non-verbal communication hidden in them.

The scientific study of Non-verbal communication is usually traced to Darwin’ s work”On the Expressions of The Emotion in Man and Animal“.

It important to understand non-verbal cues for a manager/hospitality profesional because whole industry serves comfort to humans by humans.

DEFINITION

Non-verbal communication can be defined as that part of our communication which cannot be expressed through words ,however,can be expressed through everything else from the way we move to the way we talk our appearnace,state of mind ,use of space and time etc.

IMPORTANCE & INEVETABILITY

Why Non-Verbal Communication is important & inevitable ?

Non-verbal communication is one of the most important part in our day to day communication formal as well as formal.

It improves an individuals ability to

Relate,

Engage,and                                                                                                                                             

Establish meaningful interactions leading to stronger relationship.

For a hospitality professional building connections is an inevitable task and an understanding of whta the other person wants /is communicating beyond verbal and verbal communication goes a long way in bringing business,networking and generating good will and positive image.

Non-verbal communication is interpreted in various ways across the human race and cultures.Each movement/combination of bodily movement like direction of eyes,gestures of limbs,shifts in postures,expressions on the face provide signals to others.These cues can be subtle or obvious-a person may be saying something and his/her body language may be conveying entirely other thing.Non-verbal communication is often instintive and typically not easy to fake.It indicates person’s true feelings.

Non -verbal communication is inevitable because of its multi-dimensional periphery.You cannot stop non-verbal communication although you can limit your verbal and written communication.Also Nature don not talk it does and conveys its message through non-verbal cues only.such is the inevitability of non-verbal communication.

In hospitality industry non-verbal communication plays a great role for the whole business to be run efficiently and effectively to earn profit and maintain goodwill and to get the work done without chaos.

KINESICS

 

The word kinesics was first introduced in the year 1952 by an antropologist Ray Birdwhistell.He wanted to study how people communicate through posture,gesture,stance and movement.He used to film people in social situations and anlyzing them to show the various elements of communication which were not known ealier.

He believed that every body movement convey something,it has a meaning and non-verbal communication has a grammar like spoken language.He estimated that 30-35% of human conversation is carried by words rest is through KINESICS.

Kinesics/Body Language is one of the most important part of non-verbal communication.Body movements convey a mesage however,its interpretation varies from person to person and culture to culture.

Also kinesics is carried at a sub-conscious levels so there are many chances for misinterpretation during intercultural conversations.

DEFINITION

Kinesics can be defined as the study of the way in which certain body movements,gestures,postures,facila expression ,eye contact etc. serve as a form of non-verbal communication.

WHAT CONSTITUTES KINESICS?

FACIAL EXPRESSION-Facial expression can be defined as the movement of facila muscles to convey emotions of Happiness,Sadness,Fear,Disgust,Anger,Contempt and Surprise.

GESTURES-Gestures can be defined as non-verbal communication where visible body movement of hands,face or other parts convey particular message either in place or in conjunction with speech.

POSTURE-Posture can be defined as how our body stands itself depicting interpersonal relations and personality traits such as confidence,submissiveness and openness as well as social standing.

GAIT-It can be defined as a non verbal communication conveyed through how we walk or move our foot.

VISIBLE ARM & BODY MOVEMENT-It includes every other movement of our body conveying certain message beyond the above four kinemes.

PROXEMICS-THE COMMUNICATION BY USE OF SPACE

The term proxemics was coined by the cultural anthropologist Edward T.Hall in the year 1963.In his book “HIDDEN DIMENSIONS” he has emphasized the impact of proxemic behaviour on interpersonal communication.

What is proxemic behaviour?

Sub-consciously people use space around them in such a manner that this behaviour communicte many things about them,in moderm terms the use of space can be houses,buildings and towns convey strong messages about the individual/human(s).

Proxemic behaviour is the way humans use space around them and in their interpersonal communication & relationships.It is strongly influenced by cultures.

PROXEMICS-DEFINITION

Proxemics can be defined as that part of non-verbal communication which  studies  the use of space by human beings which reflects strongly about their behaviour,interpersonal relationship and living styles across various cultures.

INTERPERSONAL DISTANCES

Space is the distance surrounding a person.HALL has described four interpersonal spaces/zones  as under,according to at what distance we are keeping other human beings.

When a stranger enter at a wrong distance as psychologically decided by us we feel uncomfortable.

  1. INTIMATE SPACE
  2. PERSONAL SPACE
  3. SOCIAL SPACE
  4. PUBLIC SPACE

Intimate space is when we embrace ,touch or whisper something.The distance is from 1 inch to 18 inches.

Personal space is when we interact among good friends and/or family.The distance can be from 1.5 feet to 4 feet.

Social space is when we interact among acquaintances.The distance is from 4 feet to 12 feet.

Public space is the distance in space we use for public speeaking.The distance is from 12 feet to 25 feet.

PROXEMICS-EXAMPLES

Every person has set a personal zone psychologically as theirs.Human beings are territorial animals so they have the tendency to claim space.It gives them sense of control.Personal space or proxemics thus is a form of non-verbal communication,which describes the nature of space surrounding each person.

After psychologically defining are distances/spaces for all the four spaces/zones i.e.intimate,personal,socuila nad public we start protecting our spaces and thatbstart reflecting in our behaviour and interpersonal relationaships describing many things about us beyond written and verbal communication.

EXAMPLES

1.In an Aeroplane/elevator/other public places/public transport our personal spcae gets compromised we start dehumanizing by making no eye cotact and cating busy.Even a loud phone call tresspasses our personal space.

2.Business relationships starts at SOCIAL Zone however as the trust is build they move to personal zone ,sometimes intimate zone as well.

3.When we sit on a dining table the head of the family sits at the head of the family as he controls the family it gives sense of power.

4.Across cultures,professions,personal preferences and affluence personal space varies.

i.More affluent person demands more             personal space of yours.

ii.Those living in densely populated                    areas tend to have less personal space.

iii.Some cultures love to interact in                       social zone others in personal zone.

5.In our culture we have special space for various relationships in the family and we act acoordingly.

HOW TO USE PROXEMICS FOR YOUR BENEFIT IN YOUR SOCIAL CIRCLE AND PROFESSION?

The trick lies in respecting peoples’space.

#Be sensitive about the peoples comfort zone,do not try to tresspass.

#Don’t be loud in voice and beahviour.

#Use social media,phone calls, conversations respecting the spaces around you.

#Keep yourself informed about the mood,mental state and the added responsibilities of other individuals according to their profession,age culture,gender etc. and enter their personal spaces as and when required only.

PARALANGUAGE-VOCAL BEHAVIOUS & ITS IMPACT ON NON_VERBAL COMMUNICATION